23 May 2023
- Cash Crops Definition
- Types of Cash Crops
- Top 10 Cash Crops Names in India
- Fruits and Vegetables
- Challenges for Cash crop in India
- Dependence on Monsoon
- Market Volatility
- Climate Change
- Land Degradation
The Indian agriculture is now largely modernized. It has become a potential source of not only sustaining livelihoods but also of improving the livelihoods. With the growth in agriculture and increase in demand for agricultural crops other than rice and wheat, year-on-year Indian agriculture is witnessing surplus production. As a result, they are either sold into the market or are readily available for exports. It is in this light, the cash crops in India have become popular among Indian farmers. Commercial farming in India offers a way for them to earn more money. In this blog article, we will look the Top 10 Cash Crops in India and importance of cash crops in India.
Cash Crops Definition
Cash crops refer to agricultural crops that are primarily grown for sale or export purposes, rather than for subsistence or personal consumption. These crops are typically high-value and in high demand, generating significant revenue for the farmers who grow them.
Today, most of the crops grown are cash crops as they are cultivated to sell into either international or domestic market.
Cash crops can be either food crops or non-food crops, and they vary widely in terms of the products they produce. Commercial crops example include coffee, tea, cocoa, cotton, sugarcane, tobacco, rubber, palm oil, and various types of fruits and vegetables.
Types of Cash Crops
Cash crops can be broadly divided into two types. These are food crops and non-food crops. Let us know about the cash crop types briefly.
Food cash crops: They are grown for meeting the food needs of the country and earn profit by selling them in the market. Some of the commercial crop examples of it includes wheat, rice, millets, and maize, among others.
Non-food crops: They are not grown for meeting the food needs of the country. They are solely grown from the motive of selling them in the market. The examples of it include rubber and cotton, among others.
Top 10 Cash Crops Names in India
In this section we will read about the list of cash crops images with names. The Top 10 commercial crops in India include Mustard, Jute, Sugarcane, Tobacco, Tea, and Coffee, among others. Let us see one by one.
Mustard has been cultivated in India since ancient times. Mustard cultivation is one of the cash crops which provides more profit to the farmers. It can be grown in both hot and cold climates, but it is best to grow it in winters. It is primarily a rabi crop. Further, this crop is produced in a short span of time from planting to harvesting, which gives the farmers instant cash to purchase the crop.
In India, mustard is cultivated majorly in the states of Rajasthan, Haryana, Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal, and Gujarat. Rajasthan is also known as the ‘Mustard State of India’ as it is the largest mustard producing state of India. It produces around 44% of the total mustard production in the country.
Importance of Mustard Cultivation
- It is a profitable crop, as oil, manure, oil cake and seed can be produced from it.
- Its product mustard oil is used in mining, industrial and food industries in India.
- The compost made from this provides nutrition to agricultural produce and the cake is used as fodder for cows and chickens.
- In food industry, it is used in various food products like pickles, snacks, and condiments.
Jute is an important cash crop in India. It is made from the jute plant’s stem, which is also known as Corchorus Plant. Presently, India is the world's largest producer of jute. In India, it is primarily grown in the states of West Bengal, Bihar, and Assam. The other states where it is grown are Andhra Pradesh, Odisha, Meghalaya, Nagaland, Tripura, and Uttar Pradesh.
In these states, farmers use various techniques to grow jute. However, the traditional method of growing jute involves sowing the seeds in small plots of land, followed by transplanting the saplings to a larger field.
Importance of Jute Cultivation
- Jute is a versatile crop that can be used for various purposes such as making ropes, twines, carpets, bags, curtains, and other household items.
- It is also used for making paper, and the pulp obtained from jute is used for making currency notes, among other things.
- Jute is an eco-friendly crop that has a wide range of applications, making it a popular choice for farmers.
Sugarcane is one of the most important cash crops in India. It is a tall perennial grass that is grown primarily for sugar production, but it is also used for producing ethanol, biofuel, and jaggery.
Sugarcane is cultivated in many states in India including Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, and Gujarat.
Uttar Pradesh is the largest producer of sugarcane in India, accounting for almost 45% of the total production. Maharashtra and Karnataka are the second and third-largest sugarcane producers in the country.
Sugarcane is grown in tropical and subtropical regions and requires a hot and humid climate with well-distributed rainfall. It is a long-duration crop and takes around 10 to 12 months to mature. Sugarcane farming requires considerable labour and is highly capital-intensive.
Importance of Sugarcane Cultivation
- It is a multipurpose cash crop and one of the most important Kharif crop.
- For food industry, it is used in making sugar, khandsari, jaggery.
- Its bagasse is used to make paper and molasses.
- Besides, it's bagasse is also used as a biofuel in countries like Brazil.
Tobacco is another significant cash crop grown in India. In India, it was introduced by Portuguese in 1605. Presently, India is the fourth-largest producer and third-largest exporter of tobacco in the world.
Today, in India, it is mainly cultivated in the states of Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, and West Bengal.
Tobacco is a labour-intensive crop that requires a lot of attention and care. It is mostly grown in areas with fertile soil and a warm climate. The best time for planting tobacco is from June to August, and the crop is harvested from December to February.
Tobacco cultivation involves various steps, such as land preparation, sowing, transplanting, irrigation, fertilizer application, and pest control. The crop is ready for harvesting when the leaves turn yellow and start drying up. After harvesting, the tobacco leaves are dried, cured, and sorted before being sent to the market.
Importance of Tobacco Cultivation
- Tobacco is used in the production of cigarettes, cigars, chewing tobacco, and snuff.
- The tobacco industry in India generates a significant amount of revenue for the country and provides employment opportunities to thousands of people.
- However, tobacco consumption has harmful effects on health, and the government has been implementing various measures to discourage tobacco use.
The history of tea in India can be traced back to the 19th century when the British introduced tea cultivation in the country. In 1823, the British established the first tea plantation in Assam, in the northeast region of India. They also introduced tea cultivation in other parts of the country, including Darjeeling, Nilgiris, and Kangra.
Tea quickly became a popular beverage in India, with the demand for tea increasing rapidly. By the early 20th century, tea had become a major industry in India, with thousands of hectares of land devoted to tea cultivation. Today, India is the second largest producer of tea in the world after China.
In India, Assam is the largest producer of tea contributing about 50% of total tea production. It is followed by West Bengal, Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Karnataka, and Tripura, among others. Speaking region-wise, northern India contributes 83% of total tea production of the country.
Importance of Tea Cultivation
- It is one of the main contributors of state revenues in the tea growing states of India. For instance, it contributes 15% of state GDP of Assam.
- It is also an important foreign exchange earner as India is the 5th largest exporter of tea in the world.
- Proliferation of small tea businesses in place of large tea estates have given rise to immense employment opportunities in rural areas.
Coffee is one of the most important cash crops in India, with a rich history dating back to the 16th century. India is among the top 10 coffee producers in the world, with over 250,000 coffee farmers spread across 14 states. India contributes around 3% of the global coffee production. In terms of exports, according to Food and Agricultural Organisation (FAO), India is the 8th largest exporter of coffee globally.
The country produces two types of coffee, viz., Arabica and Robusta coffee, with Arabica being the more popular and preferred variety. However, Robusta coffee is the main export from India, which is low in acidity and high in bitterness compared to Arabica.
Coffee is a cash crop that is grown primarily in the southern states of India, including Karnataka, which is the largest producer of coffee in India. This southern state contributes around 70% of the total coffee production. It is followed by Kerala, and Tamil Nadu.
Importance of Coffee Cultivation
- It provides direct employment to around 20 lakh people in rural areas of India.
- It is an important source of foreign exchange in India.
- It also aids in reducing soil erosion, is an important carbon sink and aids watershed management.
- It helps maintain biodiversity in areas of mixed cropping on small farmlands.
Rubber was introduced on the hill slopes of Kerala in India in 1895. But as a commercial crop it was first grown in 1902. Today, India is the 4th largest producer of natural rubber in the world after Thailand, Indonesia, and Vietnam.
In India, rubber is grown primarily in the southern states of India, with Kerala contributing around 90% of the total rubber production in the country.
Importance of Rubber Cultivation
- It is also used for erasing pencil marks.
- It also contributes to Indian export revenue.
- The demand for rubber mainly comes from transport sector and footwear sector in India.
Silk is a major cash crop grown in India and process of cultivating silks is known as sericulture. The four main types of silk grown in India are Mulberry, Tasar, Eri, and Munga. The mulberry silk is the largest silk produced in the country. Today, India is the second largest producer of silk in the world.
In India, silk is mainly produced in the states of Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Assam, and Gujarat, among others. Karnataka is the largest producer of silk in the country with 32% share in total silk production.
Importance of Silk Cultivation
- Silk is the one of the largest contributors to foreign exchange kitty of India.
- It employs around 1 crore people in semi-urban and rural areas of the country.
India is known as the land of spices, and several spices such as black pepper, cardamom, and turmeric are grown in the country. India is the largest producer, consumer, and exporter of spices in the world.
Different spices grown in India includes pepper, cardamom (large and small), chilli, turmeric, ginger, and cumin seeds, among others. In fact, chilli, coriander, cumin seeds, and ginger share in spices production in India is around 75%.
In India, the largest state to produce spices is Madhya Pradesh, followed by Rajasthan, Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh, and Telangana.
Fruits and Vegetables
India is the second largest producer of fruits and vegetables in the world after China. The major fruits and vegetables grown in India includes mangoes, bananas, tomatoes, and onions. These crops generate significant revenue for farmers in the country.
Uttar Pradesh with 14% share is the largest producer of vegetables in India. It is followed by West Bengal. On the other hand, Andhra Pradesh is the largest producer of fruits in India.
Challenges for Cash crop in India
Cash Crops are a major source of income for farmers in India, but they are prone to certain challenges. Some of the challenges include dependence on monsoon, market volatility, and climate change, among others.
Dependence on Monsoon
India's agricultural sector is highly dependent on the monsoon season for water supply, and the erratic nature of the monsoon can make it challenging for farmers to plan their cash crop cultivation. A delayed or insufficient monsoon can result in crop failure, reduced yields, and decreased income for farmers.
Cash crop prices are often subject to market volatility, which can have a significant impact on the income of farmers who rely on them. Farmers may be forced to sell their crops at lower prices during times of oversupply or when prices drop due to international market trends. Additionally, the lack of infrastructure and efficient supply chains in some parts of the country can make it difficult for farmers to get their crops to market and achieve competitive prices.
Climate change is having a significant impact on agricultural productivity in India, and cash crops are no exception. Rising temperatures, changing rainfall patterns, and increased incidence of extreme weather events such as droughts and floods are all impacting cash crop production. This can result in reduced yields, lower quality crops, and increased vulnerability to pests and diseases.
Cash crops often require large amounts of inputs such as fertilizers and pesticides, which can lead to land degradation and reduced soil fertility over time. This can make it increasingly difficult for farmers to maintain the productivity of their land and achieve sustainable yields.
In conclusion, India's agriculture sector is diverse and produces several cash crops that generate significant revenue for the farmers and the country. The top 10 cash crops in India are Mustard, Jute, sugarcane, tobacco, tea, coffee, rubber, silk, spices, fruits, and vegetables.
Top 10 Cash Crops in India - List of Best Commercial Crops? ›
Coffee, cotton, raw jute, sugarcane, tea, tobacco, groundnut, rapeseed, mustard, and soybean are some of the major commercial crops of India. Further Reading: Major Crops India.Which is the best commercial crop in India? ›
The most important commercial crop of India is Sugarcane. India has the largest area under sugarcane cultivation in the world.Which is the most valuable cash crop in India? ›
Cotton supports the livelihood of more than 6 million farmers in India. States such as Punjab, Haryana, and Madhya Pradesh are top cotton cultivators. 36.5 million bales of cotton were produced by India in 2020 and we exported cotton to the tune of US$ 6.3 billion in the year 2020-2021. Indian tea is a cash crop too!What are the commercial cash crops in India? ›
Sugarcane, cotton, jute, oilseeds, and tobacco are common profitable cash crops cultivated. With an increase in productivity of certain crops, especially sugar, the government aids the cultivation in providing incentives.What is the most commercial crop? ›
Corn, soybeans, barley and oats
The largest United States crop in terms of total production is corn, the majority of which is grown in a region known as the Corn Belt. The second largest crop grown in the United States is soybeans. As with corn, soybeans are primarily grown in the Midwestern states.
Tree farms are one of the most profitable farming business ideas in the country. There is a massive demand for fruits, but then there is also a demand for timber to be used as raw material. If you have a lot of land, you can grow various trees and sell the produce for profit.What are the top 5 cash crops? ›
- Soybeans, $965.2 million.
- Corn, $889.4 million.
- Hay, $504.9 million.
- Cotton, $229.8 million.
- Wheat, $152.3 million.
- Tobacco, $84.1 million (Tennessee ranks No. 3 in production)
Major Kharif crops of India includes Millets (Bajra & Jowar), Cotton, Soyabean, Sugarcane, Paddy or Rice, Maize, Pulses, Groundnut, Red Chillies, etc.Which farming is most profitable? ›
- Garlic Farming. The payoff on growing garlic can be enormous for those who prefer to grow “gourmet” garlic. ...
- Lavender Farming. Lavender farming produces above-average gain for small growers, as it is such a varied crop. ...
- Gourmet Mushrooms Farming. ...
- Bamboo Farming. ...
- Willows Farming.
High-value crops are crops that provide higher net returns per hectare to the farmer than high yielding winter rice.
Which vegetable farming is more profitable in India? ›
Hence, tomato cultivation will be a profitable vegetable farming option for every farmer. Also, the summer yield of tomatoes has higher prices as we get the ideal conditions in summer.What is the number 1 cash crop? ›
California's Top 10 Agricultural Commodities
Over a third of the country's vegetables and three-quarters of the country's fruits and nuts are grown in California. California's top 10 valued commodities for the 2021 crop year are: Dairy Products, Milk — $7.57 billion. Grapes — $5.23 billion. Almonds — $5.03 billion.
Rice is India's most popular food grain. The country is ranked second in the world for rice production. Rice is grown on around 34% of the country's total cropped land.Who is the No 1 farmer in India? ›
|S. No.||Farmers||Area of farming|
|2||Sachin Kale||Seasonal vegetables|
|3||Harish Dhandev||Aloe vera|
|4||Ram Saran Verma||Banana, Tomato, Brinjal|
8-10 lakhs can be earned in a year with only 1 acre of land. This method will require less effort and less materials. Know how to maximize the use of Sunlight. There are many farmers in India who have less than 5 acre of land.What is India's number one agriculture? ›
Punjab is the most fertile state on earth. It is best to produce wheat, sugarcane, rice, vegetables, and fruits in Punjab. Punjab's other name is the Granary of India and India's breadbasket.Which plant is most in demand in India? ›
- Bamboo Plants: Bamboo plants are symbolic of good fortune, wealth, longevity, and other virtues. ...
- Flowers: Flowers are appreciated and loved by all. ...
- Herbs: Herbs have many uses. ...
- Mushrooms: Facing space issues? ...
- Ornamental Grasses: ...
- Ginseng: ...
- Medicinal Plants:
- Radish : Radishes are one of the fastest-growing vegetables, taking just three to four weeks to reach harvest time. ...
- Tomato: ...
- Carrot: ...
- Spinach: ...
- Bush beans: ...
- Fenugreek: ...
- Beet root:
Larger farms tend to grow cash crops such as coffee, tea, cotton, cocoa, fruit and rubber.What crops are sold for money? ›
- Saffron. ...
- Goji Berries. ...
- Wasabi. ...
- Bonsai Plants.
What are the 4 most important crops? ›
Rice is a leading food crop. Corn is a leading feed crop. Cotton is a leading fiber crop. Soybeans are a leading oil crop.What are the 10 most important crops in India? ›
Types of Major Crops In India:
The prime Kharif crops in India include Millets, Cotton, Soyabean, Sugarcane, Turmeric, Rice, Maize, Pulses, Groundnut, etc. West Bengal, UP, Andhra Pradesh, Punjab, and Tamil Nadu are India's major rice production states.
How do Luxury Crops affect the people in the area. - Tobacco can be grown under a wide range of climates but the best temperature for growth is between 20 and 30°C. the globe, do produce it. are: China, Brazil, India, The U.S., and Indonesia.What is a high value commercial crop? ›
HVCs are crops other than traditional crops which include but are not limited to: coffee and cacao, fruit crops (e.g., citrus, cashew, guyabano, papaya, mango, pineapple, strawberry, jackfruit, rambutan, durian, mangosteen, guava, lanzones, and watermelon), root crops (e.g., potato and ubi), vegetable crops (e.g., ...What are the three highest produced crops? ›
Aside from sugar cane in first place, the next the top three most produced crops in the world are all classified as grains. Grains include cereals and legumes and are such a widespread crop because they can grow in almost any climate.Which three crops contribute maximum? ›
So, the correct answer is 'Wheat, Rice and maize'.Which vegetable has highest price in India? ›
Hop shoots are referred to as the world's most expensive vegetable not only in India but all across the globe. Known for its medicinal properties, the vegetable is priced at €1,000 a kilo and INR 85,614 in India. The vegetable is so costly that one can buy the gold earring for the same price.Which is the richest farming state in India? ›
Punjab is also known as the Granary of India and the Breadbasket of India. Food grain production accounts for over 93% of all productive land. Wheat and paddy agriculture cover the majority of Punjab's land. And this area expands year after year.Which is the most selling vegetable in India? ›
Potatoes are the most consumed vegetable in India, with a share of 20% in total vegetable spending. The headline number of the all-India share in vegetable consumption actually hides the dominance of onions in vegetable consumption in large parts of the country.Which fruit is expensive grown in India? ›
- Jungli Jalebi/ Kodukkapuli (Camachile) ...
- Carambola (Star Fruit) ...
- Buddha's Hand (Fingered Citron) ...
- Langsah/ Lotka (Langsat)
- Mangustaan (Mangosteen) ...
- Japani Phal (Persimmon) ...
- Ambarella (Indian Hog Plum) ...
- Karonda (Carandas Cherry)
Which fruit is the king of India? ›
Mango is a fruit known as the 'king of fruits', due to its unique flavour and taste that have made it popular across the world. Its scientific name is 'Mangifera indica' and belongs to the family 'Anacardiaceae'. Mango is mostly consumed directly in the ripened form.What crop produces the most food per acre? ›
Each bushel weighs 56 pounds and each pound of corn yields about 1,566 calories. That means corn averages roughly 15 million calories per acre.Which crop has the highest profit per acre in Uganda? ›
Coffee — In Uganda, coffee contributes the highest revenue.What are the 7 major crops in India? ›
The Indo-Gangetic plain is the most fertile region of India.What are 5 names of cash crops? ›
Examples of typical food and non-food cash crops are cereals, oilseeds, coffee, cocoa, sugar cane, vegetables and fruits (e.g. avocado and oranges), peanuts, cotton and tobacco.What are 8 examples of cash crops? ›
Cash crops act as raw materials for the industrial direct consumer products. For example, sugarcane is a cash crop that is the raw material for sugar. Sugarcane, Cotton, Jute, Tobacco. Tea, coffee, Areca nut, cashew nut, Coconut, Areca nut, Oil palm, Cocoa, Rubber.Which is the No 1 crop production in India? ›
Rice, wheat, millet, pulses, tea, coffee, sugarcane, oil seeds, cotton, jute, and others are some of India's major crops.What is India's top crop? ›
India is the world's largest producer of milk, pulses and jute, and ranks as the second largest producer of rice, wheat, sugarcane, groundnut, vegetables, fruit and cotton.Which crop is most suitable for India? ›
As a consequence, the country produces a diversified range of crops. Rice, Wheat, and lentils are among the topmost food grains grown in India. India's agriculture states are producing high-quality agricultural goods and other food supplies.
Which is the 2nd most produced crop in India? ›
- Rice. Rice is a tropical crop that can be grown almost throughout the year. ...
- Wheat. It is the 2nd most important food crop in India. ...
- Cotton. Cotton is a tropical and subtropical Kharif crop. ...
- Jute. ...
- Sugarcane. ...
- Tea. ...
- Coffee. ...
Rice is sown on the largest area in India.Which is the 2nd most grown crop in India? ›
India is an agricultural country and several types of crops are grown in India. Major crops grown in India are Rice, wheat, millets, pulses, tea, coffee, sugarcane, oil seeds, cotton, jute etc. India is the second largest producer of rice, wheat, sugarcane, ground nuts, fruits and vegetables.Which vegetable is most profitable to grow in India? ›
Also, farmers will get higher profits from the large-scale production of Brinjal in India. We can choose different brinjal varieties according to the available growing conditions. In this way, Brinjal cultivation is profitable for Indian farmers.What are luxury crops? ›
A “luxury crop” is a crop that is grown to serve some purpose other than sustaining human life. All of these crops are consumed for reasons other than nutrition and so are called “luxury crops.”